Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure can have a debilitating effect on national economic security, public health, and safety. The underlying processes of the various critical infrastructure sectors are controlled by Industrial Control Systems (ICS). ICS are transitioning from legacy, electromechanical-based systems to modern information and communication technology-based systems, creating a close coupling between cyber and physical components. This transition greatly expands the attack surface of such systems, as cyberattacks targeting commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software are well-known. In this talk, we provide an academic perspective to ICS cybersecurity, presenting case studies on cyberattacks and defenses for two critical infrastructure sectors: the power grid and the chemical sector. We also discuss the need for an accurate assessment environment, achieved through the inclusion of Hardware-In-The-Loop testbeds.