The Zipipop logo used at Christmas tree decoration
Private use is usually excluded from the copyright holder's right to make the use of his work subject to his permission. According to § 12 of the Copyright Act, any person may make single copies of a disseminated work for his private use . However, such copies may not be used for other purposes. In case law, the derogating provision regarding private use has been interpreted strictly, and only the exploitation of works that takes place purely for personal needs has been considered appropriate . This refers to the closest circle of family and friends. When copies are made for private use, they are limited to single copies, which are considered to mean 2 to 5 copies. Thus, any private use exceeding 5 copies, such as using a drawing in a wedding invitation, requires permission from the author.
For certain works such as computer applications and buildings, the private copying right does not exist.
Private Use by Teachers and Researchers
When a teacher copies works for private use in order to promote their professional skills, it is private use. If a researcher copies works for personal use, it is private use. If works are being copied for a research or student group, it is use, which requires permission. A work community is not a circle of friends in the manner intended in the Copyright Act therefore use in a work community is not private use.
Notes and References
 KKO 1987: 16